This is the boss of the Execution Room of Takamagahara Shrine. You have a limited amount of time to fight him before the spiky ceiling crushes you.
If you have the Vajra, It's recommended to either disable it or try not to go past the first combo attack. Use the Chain Whip if you have it, although the Standard Whip may not be too strong for this battle.
The boss moves in a pattern of Left, Up, Right, Up. In-between these movements, the boss will shoot needles that can't hurt you if you're not jumping. However, whenever the boss is moving Up, stand in the middle of the room to avoid the downward attacks.
Whenever the boss is on the left or right sides, try to get as many whip attacks in as early as possible.
Ideally, you want to whip the boss 2 times before the boss shoots, and 4 times after.
Another strategy for those who have flares is to crouch right in front of him when he lands to the left or right and fire a succession of flares into his head. You'll need around 30 flares for this strategy.
After you defeat the boss, escape the room as fast as possible, or warp out using the Holy Grail.